Coenzyme L-Carnosine & L-Carnitine Review | OraMune
Coenzyme Q10, Acetyle L-Carnitine, L-Carnosine, Cretine Monohydrate, Alpha Lipoic Acid and D-Ribose (see review D-Ribose) and Ascorbic Acid are all components of Maxi Energy. These ingredients contribute to enhanced mitochondrial function and increased cellular energy. Mitochondria are small membrane bound organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. They are known as cellular power plants because they generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) used as a source of chemical energy.
Coenzyme Q10 is a vitamin like substance manufactured by all cells in the body. It also plays a crucial role in energy production and is one of body’s most powerful antioxidants that protect the mitochondria and cell membranes against free radicals and oxidative damage. CoQ10 may also boost immune function, prevent proliferation of cancer cells and prevent heart disease due to atherosclerosis. Consumption of many anti cholesterol statins such as Pravachol, Lipitor, Mevacor and zocor cause CoQ10 deficiency. It is therefore suggested that patients taking these drugs should receive CoQ10 supplementation. Other benefits of CoQ10 are neuro-protective effect on brain cells and possible amelioration of Parkinson’s disease, production of the high-energy phosphate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other life sustaining functions.
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a fatty acid found naturally inside every cell of the body. It plays a crucial role in energy producing structures of the cells. ALA is a strong and versatile antioxidant. It may also improve immune function due to its ability to promote secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Interleukin-2 is an immune modulator released by a population of T lymphocytes in response to antigenic stimulation. It increases proliferation and activity of other T and B lymphocytes. ALA is also able to recycle other antioxidants, including vitamins C and E, CoQ10 and glutathione.
Acetyle L-Carnitine (ALC) is a modified amino acid which like alpha lipoic acid (ALA) enhances energy production in the cells by carrying fatty acids into mitochondria where it is converted into energy. ALC may also be of value to treat depressed male sexual function, mood, physical and mental fatigue. While by itself, it is not an antioxidant, ALC works well in combination with ALA to improve both the activity and cognitive function of old rats. Experimental work showed that after just a month, older rats whose diet was supplemented with these two compounds were about twice as active as control rats, which remained largely inactive. The researchers noted that the brain of the research animals looked better and they were full of energy. “Every thing we looked at looks more like a young animal. Supplementation with ALA and ALC also improver both spatial and temporal memory. Pictures of brain cells show less decay in old rats fed a supplemented diet. It appears that these compounds can mask the metabolic problems caused by cellular aging and the natural oxidative process the researchers wrote. The implications of these findings suggest ALA and ALC regenerate aging cells and delay senescence.
Creatine Monohydrate is a nitrogenous organic acid produced in the body from the amino acids argentine, glycine and methionine. Creatine plays a vital role in cellular energy production as creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine in regenerating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in skeletal muscle. Oral administration of 2-5 grams of creatine per day increases muscle stores and provides significant gain in physical performance in high-intensity exercise and intense training. Phosphocreatine is also used to help generate cellular energy for muscle contractions and acts as a storage form of quick energy. Creatin has been demonstrated to cause moderate increases in strength in people with a variety of neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disorders and may be of use for the treatment of diseases such as arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, muscular dystrophy and mitochondrial diseases. There is also experimental evidence that daily intake (about 5 grams) of creatine improves cognitive ability and memory compared to controls.
L-Carnosine is a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine highly concentrated in human muscle cells (myocytes) and brain tissues. It is a very powerful anti oxidant and has been proven to scavenge reactive oxygen species. L-carnosine is a modulator of enzyme activity and a heavy metal chelator (see review lactoferrim). Numerous experimental studies indicate L- carnosine protects against radiation damage, improves heart function, promotes wound healing, regenerates and rejuvenates cells approaching senescence (the end of the life cycle of dividing cells) and protects cell membranes from oxidative damage. It is therefore referred to as one of the nutrients for longevity with amazing anti-aging properties. L-carnosine is touted as the anti aging nutrient because of its favorable effects on inhibiting the formation of age inducing substances called “advanced glycation end products’ (AGEs). Glycosylation is the oxidation of proteins which occur when sugar molecules attach to proteins and block their normal metabolic function resulting in cross-linking of proteins. AEGs are abnormal cross-linked and oxidized proteins which are implicated in loss of cell function, genome integrity and accelerated aging. Studies suggest that L- carnosine protects DNA and proteins from cross-linking. Moreover, it also binds to already formed AEGs and inactivates them.
Research has shown that resistance training is associated with periods of intracellular hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and low intracellular PH. L-carnosine acts as a buffer in the muscle keeping PH levels from falling during extensive exercise such as bodybuilding. In a controlled study it was shown that muscle carnosine in bodybuilders was twice that in controls and represented a 20% contribution to muscle buffering capacity. L-carnosine is found in especially high concentrations in nerve cells (neurons) and the brain and is shown to have neuro protective activity. In fact carnosine has shown to reduce and prevent cell damage by beta amyloid, a substance found in the brain of Alzheimer sufferers. A small 2002 study in autistic children reported that over an eight week period, L-Carnosine improved behavior and communications by 16%. Social interaction improved by 27% and, in just four weeks, parents reported an overall improvement that more than doubled through the length of the study. Other benefits of L- Carnosine are retarding skin aging, boost immunity, prevention of atherosclerosis, joint inflammation, anti cancer activity and a super antioxidant.